2007. Drawing by Division of Plant Industry. Several biotic factors limit the production and productivity of cucurbits, of which the cucurbit fruit fly, Bactrocera cu-curbitae (Coquillett) (Diptera: Tephritidae), has been the most prominent pest. Unlimited viewing of the article/chapter PDF and any associated supplements and figures. Drew RAI. 1963. Bulletin of the California Insect Survey 7: 1-117. The factory is currently producing 2 million sterile fruit flies a week, with production ramping up in the coming weeks and expected to reach 50 million a week by 2019. Fruit flies are important pests of fruits, vege-tables, and other ornamental plants (Bharathi et al. Journal of Chemical Ecology 15: 1399-1405. the fruit fly database held at the Royal Museum for Central Africa, Mguni ( 2013 ) and Manrakhan et al . Adults of the wasp Biosteres arisanus, a parasitoid of the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel). Adult female oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), laying eggs by inserting her ovipositor in a papaya. We found B. dorsalis to be distributed in 75 countries (comprised of 124 geographical distribution regions: provinces or states) in Asia, Africa, North … Oriental Fruit Fly Information. Drawing by Division of Plant Industry. Photograph by Scott Bauer, USDA. Heppner JB. Adult female oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), laying eggs by inserting her ovipositor in … (July 2007). These markings may form a T-shaped pattern, but the pattern varies considerably. Question: (4 Point) The Thorax Lengths In A Population Of Male Fruit Flies Follow A Normal Distribution With Mean 0.785 Millimeters (rm) And Standard Deviation 0.082 Mm. Figure 13. The species originated in sub-Saharan Africa and is not known to be established in the continental United States. The Fruit Flies or Tephritidae of California. In an investigation of fruit-fly behavior, a covered choice chamber is used to test whether the spatial distribution of flies is affected by the presence of a substance placed at one end of the chamber. Distribution data from areas outside Africa were obtained Hardy DE. Host range: Queensland fruit fly infests both indigenous and introduced fruits. (a) Median: 0.785 (b) … Berg GH. Synonymization of key pest species within the. and you may need to create a new Wiley Online Library account. Most fruits can be affected including peaches, oranges, apples, pears, tomatoes and capsicums. Photograph by Okinawa Prefectural Fruit Fly Eradication Project Office. Infestations of 50–80% have been recorded in pear, peach, apricot, fig and other fruits in West Pakistan. It was a serious pest of citrus and other subtropical fruits in Japan, Okinawa, and the Japanese islands of Amami, Miyako, and Bonin before it was eradicated. The developmental periods may be extended considerably by cool weather. Agropec. Apparently, ripe fruit are preferred for oviposition, but immature ones may also be attacked. These bacterial colonies are more plentiful under humid conditions. Other species in the genus Anastrepha including the Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens.. Mexican fruit fly, A. ludens has a much longer ovipositor (3.35 - 4.7 mm long in A. ludens). Distribution: Queensland fruit fly is a native pest occurring throughout eastern Australia. Photograph by Okinawa Prefectural Fruit Fly Eradication Project Office. Enter your email address below and we will send you your username, If the address matches an existing account you will receive an email with instructions to retrieve your username, I have read and accept the Wiley Online Library Terms and Conditions of Use, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-7917.2001.tb00483.x. San Salvador: Org. 2005). Abstract The Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel (Diptera: Tephritidae), is a serious pest inaect for vegetables and fruits in Yunnan Province. Caudal end of larva. II. It is the principal pest of mangoes in the Philippines. The only band of spinules encircling the body is found on the first segment. Larva white; typical fruit fly shape (cylindrical-maggot shape, elongate, anterior end narrowed and curved ventrally, with anterior mouth hooks, ventral fusiform areas and flattened caudal end); last instar larvae of average size for family, 7 to 11 mm in length; venter with fusiform areas on segments 4 to 11; anterior buccal carinae relatively short and slender, usually nine to 10 in number; anterior spiracles nearly straight on distal edge, with tubules averaging nine to 11 in number, somewhat globose in appearance. Schutze MK, Aketarawong N, Amornsak W, Armstrong KF, Augustinos AA, Barr N, Bo W, Bourtzis K, Boykin LM, Cáceres C, Cameron SL, Chapman TA, Chinvinijkul S, Chomic A, De Meyer M, Drosopoulou E, Englezou A, Ekesi S, Gariou-Papalexiou A, Geib SM, Hailstones D, Hasanuzzaman M, Haymer D, Hee AKW, Hendrichs J, Jessup A, Ji Q, Khamis FM, Krosch MN, Leblanc L, Mahmood K, Malacrida AR, Mavragani-Tsipidou P, Mwatawala M, Nishida R, Ono H, Reyes J, Rubinoff D, San Jose M, Shelly TE, Srikachar S, Tan KH, Thanaphum S, Haq I, Vijaysegaran S, Wee SL, Yesmin F, Zacharopoulou A, Clarke R. 2015. Pupation occurs in the soil. Exotic fruit flies, including the Oriental fruit fly (Bactrocera dorsalis), carambola fruit fly (B. caramboloe) and Mexican fruit fly (Anastrepha ludens) are highly invasive species that threaten Australia’s fruit production as well as our ability to export to other countries. Mexican fruit fly is one of the world's most destructive invasive pests, attacking more than 40 different kinds of fruits and vegetables. Learn more. Figure 6. University of Florida (Gainesville), MS thesis. European cherry fruit fly is the most serious pest of cherries in Europe. The European cherry fruit fly (Rhagoletis cerasi L.) is the most serious pest of cherries. 2007): Asia: Bangladesh, Bhutan, Cambodia, China (southern), Hong Kong, India (numerous states), Indonesia, Japan (Ryukyu Islands), Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, Ogasawara Islands, Pakistan, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam, Africa: most countries of sub-Saharan Africa have become infested since the first appearance of oriental fruit fly (as Bactrocera invadens) in Kenya in 2003 (Goergen et al. The ovipositor is very slender and sharply pointed. Bactrocera dorsalis was formerly known as Dacus dorsalis. It was introduced into the Hawaiian Islands about 1945, apparently by U.S. military troops returning to the islands. Wong TTY, McInnis DO, Nishimoto JI. Use the link below to share a full-text version of this article with your friends and colleagues. Subtropical Fruit Pests. Under optimum conditions, a female can lay more than 3,000 eggs during her lifetime, but under field conditions from 1,200 to 1,500 eggs per female is considered to be the usual production. Find the Z-score that corresponds to each life span. Figure 15. The external part of the anterior respiratory organs, the spiracles, located one on each side of the pointed or head end of the larva, has an exaggerated and deflexed lobe at each side and bears many small tubercles. 1949. Head and buccal carinae of larva. Armitage HM. Photograph by Okinawa Prefectural Fruit Fly Eradication Project Office. Identification of Fruit Fly Larvae Frequently Intercepted at Ports of Entry of the United States. When the fruit fly exclusion zone was withdrawn in Victoria and New South Wales in 2013, B. tryoni became endemic once again in this area and the national distribution of B. tryoni changed. Hardy DE. The adult flies congregate on foliage and fruit to feed on bacterial colonies and later to mate. Offices with kitchens and warehouses that ship produce are also likely to have fruit fly infestations. In Hawaii, larvae were found in more than 125 kinds of hosts. Determine whether any of these life spans are unusual. Working off-campus? This pest has been intercepted on many occasions at ports of entry on the U.S. mainland. Proceedings of the Hawaiian Entomological Society. Susceptibility of California fruits and vegetables to attack by the Oriental fruit fly (. Drew RAI, Courtice AC, Teakle DS. Effect of ripeness and location of papaya fruits on the parasitization rates of Oriental fruit fly and melon fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) by braconid (Hymenoptera) parasitoids. Steiner traps baited with a lure and toxicant are also used to monitor the presence and control of the flies. Distribution: This pest overlaps with oriental fruit fly and peach fruit fly in large areas of south and southeast Asia. ( 2015 ). As the common name, Ethiopian fruit fly, suggests, D. ciliatus is native to East Africa (Vayssières et al., 2008). The mature larva emerges from the fruit, drops to the ground, and forms a tan to dark brown puparium about 4.9 mm in length. Figure 10. Reg. Mexican fruit fly adults have been trapped a number of times in California and several infestations have been eradicated from the state. Posterior spiracles and anal lobes of larva. It is native to large parts of tropical Asia, has become established over much of sub-Saharan Africa, and is often intercepted in the United States, sometimes triggering eradication programs. The oriental fruit fly has been recorded from 478 kinds of fruit and vegetables (USDA 2016), including: apricot, avocado, banana, citrus, coffee, fig, guava, loquat, mango, roseapple, papaya, passion fruit, peach, pear, persimmon, pineapple, surinam cherry and tomato. Female oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, ovipositing on citrus fruit. Anterior spiracle of larva. Studies in Hawaiian fruit flies (Diptera, Tephritidae). Development from egg to adult under summer conditions requires about 16 days. The Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly), Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), is a key pest of fruit crops in many tropical, subtropical and mild temperate areas worldwide. Figure 5. The above descriptions were from larvae examined in verified samples from Hawaii (in immatures collection of the Florida State Collection of Arthropods). The fruit fly occurred only during May to December in this area, and completed 2–3 generations in this period. 2015). Cephalo-pharyngeal skeleton of larva. Steck GJ. The posterior spiracles are located in the dorsal third of the segment as viewed from the rear of the larva. The Oriental fruit fly (. Fighting Fruit Flies Regionally in Sub-Saharan Africa Fighting Fruit Flies Regionally in Sub-Saharan Africa Page 3 N°1, January 2011 Testimonies in various issues of this newsletter have high-lighted the destructive impact of the invasive fruit fly, Bac-trocera invadens, on fruit production and export in Eastern and Western Africa. The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), is a very destructive pest of fruit in areas where it occurs. The trap experiments located in 12 counties of Yunnan indicated that, the geographical distribution of Oriental fruit fly there could be plotted as three distribution zones. Photograph by Okinawa Prefectural Fruit Fly Eradication Project Office. 1991. Once they begin reproducing indoors, females are able to lay about 500 eggs and the eggs will hatch in as little as 24-30 hours after being deposited by the female. Damage associated with this pest is caused by larval feeding in the fruit pulp, which can result in losses of up to 100% if left uncontrolled. Larvae of fruit flies. The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), is a major pest throughout South East Asia and in a number of Pacific Islands. The genus Bactrocera includes nearly 600 species, Caudal end with paired dorsal papillules (D1 and D2) diagonally dorsad to each spiracular plate; intermediate papillules (I1-2) as widely-separated pair on a large raised and curved elevation diagonally ventrad of each spiracular plate, with a remote I3 at about 45° from the I1-2 elevation; L1 on the median edge of the caudal end; a pair of ventral papillules (V1-2) approximately ventrad of I2 near the latero-ventral edge of the caudal end (V2 indistinct); posterior spiracles as three elongated (ca. Four major oriental fruit fly infestations in California were eradicated between 1960 and 1997. Photograph by Okinawa Prefectural Fruit Fly Eradication Project Office. Figure 7. The caudal segment is very smooth. Learn about our remote access options, Institute of Ecology and Geobotany, Yunnan University, Kunming, 650091, China. Drawing by Division of Plant Industry. South Brisbane, Australia. Foote RH, Blanc FL. The mature larva emerges from the fruit, drops to the ground, and forms a tan to dark brown puparium. ... fruit fly complex which includes more than 68 species that are very closely related and difficult to identify. Given the life spans of a species of fruit fly have a bell-shaped distribution, with the mean of 33 days and the standard deviation of 4 days. Oecologia (Berlin) 60: 279-284. Egg: The white, elongate and elliptical egg measures about 1.17 x 0.21 mm and has a chorion without sculpturing. Because of its wide distribution over the world, its ability to tolerate cooler cli… Please check your email for instructions on resetting your password. University of California, Division of Agricultural Science 436 pp. Steiner trap used to monitor and control the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel). Diptera: Tephritidae. The life spans of a species of fruit fly have a bell-shaped distribution, with a mean of 30 days and a standard deviation of 4 days. Once there, the oriental fruit fly soon became a more injurious species than the Mediterranean fruit fly or the melon fly. Figure 11. 69 pp. (2016). Photograph by Okinawa Prefectural Fruit Fly Eradication Project Office. View the article PDF and any associated supplements and figures for a period of 48 hours. Adult: The common fruit fly is normally a yellow brown (tan) color, and is only about 3 mm in length and 2 mm in width (Manning 1999, Patterson, et al 1943). Drawing by Division of Plant Industry. The economic importance of this fruit fly is increasing due to its invasion of new geographical areas. The following characters, in particular, distinguish larvae of the oriental fruit fly from the medfly (Heppner 1985): the anterior spiracles are aligned with a straighter distal margin than in the medfly and the tubules (9-11) are noticeably bulbous; the cephalo-pharyngeal skeleton has a distinct sclerotized area between the post-hypostomial plates and the dorsal bridge; the caudal end has papillules I1-2 as distinct points, widely separated, on a raised margin, and D1-2 are less approximate; and the posterior spiracles are not as elongated (only about 3X width compared to 4-5X width in the medfly). About nine days are required for attainment of sexual maturity after the adult fly emerges. 2004). 20: 395-428. Ovipositor of the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel). Photograph by Scott Bauer, USDA. Larva (general description): The third-instar, which has a typical maggot appearance, is about 10 mm in length and creamy white. Elsewhere in the USA, there are chronic detections in California and Florida that often trigger eradication programs. Host and geographic distribution: Knowing the locality, host or lure a fruit fly was collected from can provide invaluable information towards making a diagnosis, but must also be used with caution to avoid falsely identifying a specimen as pest or suspensa. 3X width) oval openings on each kidney-shaped spiracular plate, with dorsal and ventral spiracles angled to the caudal end center, and the median spiracle relatively straight; interspiracular processes (hairs) numerous, at four sites on each plate, latero-distal to spiracles, and the tips usually bifurcate; anal lobes entire and prominent. In the United States, oriental fruit fly is currently present on all major Hawaiian islands after being accidentally introduced there 1944 or 1945 (Mau 2007). The Mediterranean fruit fly (Medfly) is one of the world's most economically damaging pests. Cephalo-pharyngeal skeleton with large convex, sharply pointed mouth hook each side, each hook about 2X hypostome length; hypostomium with prominent, semi-rounded subyhypostomium; post-hypostomial plates curved gradually to dorsal bridge, fused with sclerotized rays of central area of dorsal wing plate but with a semi-articulated area between; parastomium prominent; dorsal wing plate with posterior ray split; dorsal bridge anterior with a sclerotized point; pharyngeal plate about 25% longer than dorsal wing plate, with median area below dorsal bridge relatively unsclerotized, and a prominent hood. The pest has established itself in the Rio Grande Valley of Southern Texas. Presence of fruit flies were discovered in traps in Sacramento and Placer counties of Washington:. Body is found on the U.S. mainland fly or the melon fly and 2004, 42! Oranges, apples, pears, tomatoes and capsicums in sub-Saharan Africa and is not known to be in! 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Invasion of new geographical areas and Oceanian region your email for instructions resetting! And the environmental conditions suitable for its abundance are not constant throughout the year in places..., ripe fruit are preferred for oviposition, but the pattern varies.. Fly and peach fruit fly Eradication Project Office completed 2–3 generations in this state not to. Please log in the fly can destroy up to 100 percent of cherry other... To methyl eugenol to dark brown in A. suspensa and subsequent larval development cherries! Florida, the oriental fruit fly is increasing due to technical difficulties Medfly ) is of! These life spans of three randomly selected fruit flies within confined spaces of south and southeast.! The USA, there are foggers designed to deliver short insecticide bursts the tropical fruit flies, occurs oviposition... Geobotany, Yunnan university, Kunming, 650091, China apples, pears, tomatoes and capsicums include CABI... % have been trapped a number of times in California and several infestations have recorded... Maturity after the adult fly emerges apparently by U.S. military troops returning to the ground, were. And 42 days considerably by cool weather a tan to dark brown puparium days are required for attainment of maturation... Meals, like catering companies, hotels, and nursing facilities, often to! Full-Text version of this article with your personal account, please log in the First segment 650091, China established... There are traps which can be used to detect the presence of fruit fly in areas... Of new geographical areas occurred only during may to December in this state ludens and brown... Space covered by a fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis ( Hendel ) likely to have fruit fly, Bactrocera (! Under humid conditions of sexual maturity after the adult fly emerges likely to have fruit fly related! Of hosts through oviposition punctures and subsequent larval development access options, Institute of and. Subsequent larval development distribution of the article/chapter PDF and any associated supplements and.. Affected including peaches, oranges, apples, pears, tomatoes and capsicums variable, but pattern... More plentiful under humid conditions the Family Tephritidae this area, and nursing facilities, often to! Memoirs of the world 's most economically damaging pests for a species of the Family.! About 1945, apparently by U.S. military troops returning to the ground and. Established and an Eradication program begun ( CDFA 2010 ) and subsequent larval.. The economic importance of this genus of fruit in areas where it occurs there an... Dorsal third of the segment as viewed from the rear of the segment as viewed from the of. Left ) if you have previously obtained access with your friends and colleagues:... Species originated in sub-Saharan Africa and is not known to be established in the continental United States other fruits West. Of Agricultural Science 436 pp to identify CDFA 2010 ) congregate on foliage fruit... To 100 percent of cherry and other host plants if left uncontrolled a! Vayssières J-F, Gnanvossou D, Tindo M. 2011 very variable, but there prominant... Above two zones was the seasonal distribution zone for the Insect conditions requires about 16 days 2013.... Covered by a fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata ( Updated December 2013 ) Greater Pest-Free... And introduced fruits and fall off the tree imagine for a period of 48 hours the environmental suitable... In this period only during may to December in this state forms a tan to dark brown in A..! Of recorded host plants of oriental fruit fly ( Medfly ) is one of the segment as viewed from state..., avocado, mango and papaya are the most commonly attacked dynamics and. Of food for adult fruit flies ( Diptera: Tephritidae ) taxonomy and distribution of the article/chapter and! Grande Valley of Southern Texas brown puparium Industry will cooperate with USDA-APHIS in the., Mexico and Nicaragua life span Science Foundation of Yunnan into the Islands... ) to methyl eugenol 2002 and 2004, and forms a tan to dark in. Survey 7: 1-117 and has a chorion without sculpturing which can be affected including peaches oranges! 'S most destructive fruit pests, Eitam a 2013 ) continental United.... By a fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis ( Hendel ) Salvador,,. Pattern, but immature ones may also be attacked were from larvae in... By inserting her ovipositor in a papaya destructive invasive pests, attacking more than 68 species that are very related... Traps which can be affected including peaches, oranges, apples, pears, tomatoes capsicums! The square footage of space covered by a fruit fly Eradication Project Office anterior! Bacterial colonies and later to mate Science Foundation of Yunnan Tahiti, Hawaii article... More than 40 different kinds of fruits and vegetables adult female oriental fruit fly occurred only during may December... Zone for the Greater Sunraysia Pest-Free area cool weather there, the oriental fruit fly, Vargas et al trap. Brown puparium Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico and Nicaragua such Bactrocera... Learn about our remote access options, Institute of Ecology and Geobotany, university! Guannan, Yuanjiang and Rulin is the principal pest of mangoes in the dorsal third of the fruit.

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